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The Lipo-B (MIC) injection is a product that contains a combination of compounds that have been shown to exhibit lipotropic effects. The lipotropic effects facilitate the burning of adipose tissue within the human body which may, consequently, result in some degree of weight loss. Lipo-B injections are typically used as fat loss supplements, in combination with diet and exercise, in weight loss plans. The combination of products that make up the Lipo-B (MIC) injection are methionine, inositol, choline, and cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12).
Methionine is one of the four sulfur-containing amino acids; the other three are cysteine, homocysteine, and taurine. Additionally, it is one of the nine essential amino acids in the human body. As an essential amino acid, it cannot be synthesized de novo by the human body due to a lack of the require metabolic pathway needed for its synthesis. Therefore, methionine has to be exogenously introduced into the human body either within the diet or as a supplement.12
Methionine serves several key roles in the human body such as:
Substrate in the production of critical hormones and proteins including L-cysteine, carnitine, adrenaline, choline, and melatonin, among others.
Increasing liver production of lecithin which helps lower serum cholesterol levels.
Provides sulfur which aids development of nails and promotes hair growth.
Chelating agent which helps get rid of heavy metals such as mercury.
Provides protection against hepatotoxins such as acetaminophen.34
Originally isolated from muscle extracts in 1850, inositol is a cyclic carbohydrate with six hydroxyl groups. It has nine different stereoisomers, with the most common form being myo-inositol, followed by D-chiro-inositol as the next most common. Most texts, however, use the term inositol to describe its most common variant, myo-inositol. Once considered to be an essential vitamin, it has since been discovered that inositol can be produced by the liver and the kidneys; these organs are able to produce up to 4 grams daily of inositol. Additionally, inositol can be found in food sources such as beans and fruits. It is also synthesized in the placenta in pregnant women and can be found in high concentrations in breast milk.567
One of the major roles of inositol in the body is the production of inositol triphosphate, which is an essential second messenger for hormones such as insulin and follicle stimulating hormone.6
Choline is an essential nutrient that plays a key role in a number of metabolic pathways in the human body. Even though choline is produced endogenously in the liver, it is still considered an essential nutrient because the quantities produced is not sufficient to meet the body's metabolic needs; as such, dietary supplementation of choline is necessary. Choline can be found in both animal and plant food sources, with animal food sources generally having more choline per gram of food product.
Some functions that choline serves in the body are:
Production of sphingomyelin and phosphatidylcholine, which are needed to maintain cell membrane integrity.
Production of acetylcholine, which is one of the major neurotransmitters in the body.
Modulation of gene expression and cell membrane signaling.
Early brain development in fetuses.89
Otherwise known as vitamin B12, cyanocobalamin derives its name from the fact that it has a cyanide group attached to its molecule and also contains the mineral cobalt. It is essential for cellular energy production as well as DNA synthesis. It is an essential water-soluble vitamin and must be obtained from food or as dietary supplements. Some good food sources of vitamin B12 are meat, fish, milk, eggs, and cheese, among others. Some of the roles that cyanocobalamin serves in the body include:
Cofactor for methionine synthase and L-methymalonyl-CoA mutase.
Synthesis of methionine from homocysteine.
Regeneration of tetrahydrofolate from 5-methyltetrahydrofolate
Mechanism of Action
Methionine exerts its effect in the body through the production of S-adenosylmethionine in the methionine cycle; this process is catalyzed by the enzyme methionine adenosyltransferases. Methionine adenosyltransferases combines methionine, water, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to produce S-adenosylmethionine, pyrophosphates, and inorganic phosphates. S-adenosylmethionine participates in a number of processes in the body such as biotin and polyamine synthesis. It is also involved in the synthesis of phospholipids and some neurotransmitters within the body. These methylation reactions also regulate gene expression during fetal development. One of the by-products of methionine metabolism is homocysteine which, in high serum quantities, has been linked to developmental disorders, learning disabilities, and skeletal deformities, among others.212
There are serves means by which inositol exerts its effects in the human body. Inositol is a key substrate in glucose metabolism and is a second messenger in insulin action. It binds to insulin which then initiates a cascading pathway of metabolic events through the action of the enzyme phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and the activation of insulin-1 receptor substrate. These convert phosphatidylinositol2-phosphate (PIP2) into phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PIP3) and, by so doing, activates protein kinase B (PKB), the metabolic pathway for glycogen synthesis.1314
In addition to the conversion to phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate, inositol also acts by activating pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, isoenzyme 1. This enzyme acts on glucotransporter 4 and facilitates the transport of glucose into cell across the plasma membrane for their use as an energy substrate.14
The primary way through which choline acts within the body is through its derivative phosphatidylcholine. The biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine occurs via the CDP-choline pathway. After absorption from the intestine, choline is transported into cells using choline transporters. Within the cells, choline is phosphorylated into phosphocholine or oxidized into betaine; the phosphorylation of choline is catalyzed by the enzyme choline kinase. The final step in this pathway is the conversion of phosphocholine into phosphatidylcholine, a process catalyzed by the enzyme 1,2-diacylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase. Phosphatidylcholine is a major constituent of all cell membranes within the body and is also required for the biosynthesis of lipoproteins.1516
After oral ingestion, cyanocobalamin binds to intrinsic factor as well as other cobalamin binding proteins before absorption. Once absorbed, it binds to plasma proteins before it is transported around the body. Within body tissues, the specific B12 binding proteins transcobalamin I and II facilitate the absorption of cyanocobalamin into the cells.1017
Cyanocobalamin is a cofactor for the synthesis of two major enzymes in the body namely methionine synthase and L-methymalonyl-CoA mutase. L-methymalonyl-CoA mutase converts L-methymalonyl-CoA to succinyl-CoA, which is essential for the metabolism of protein and fat. Methionine synthase plays a role in the production of purines and pyrimidines, which are building blocks in DNA synthesis.